66th IFLA Council and General
Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August
Code Number: 106-144-E
Division Number: V
Professional Group: Serial Publications
Joint Meeting with: -
Meeting Number: 144
Simultaneous Interpretation: No
The Origins and the Development of German-Jewish Press in Germany till 1850
Johannes Valentin Schwarz
Reflections on the Transformation of the German-Jewish Public Sphere in Bourgeois Society
- The penomenon of a new Jewish public sphere in modern European-Jewish history
- Germany as the centre of European-Jewish press in the 18th and 19th centuries
- The development of Jewish press in Germany till 1850
- The significance of German-Jewish press for the Jewish community in Germany
- The research on German-Jewish press of the 18th and 19th centuries
Appendix: Jewish periodicals in Germany till 1850
1 The penomenon of a new Jewish public sphere in modern European-Jewish history
The "modern era" in European-Jewish history has come to be known as the period sometime from the late 17th and 18th centuries onwards. Powerful new movements, above all mercantilism, capitalism and rationalism, began to undermine the foundations of the ancien régime and, thus, of traditional Jewish society.
By the second half of the 18th century, on the eve of the French Revolution of 1789, a small group of mostly young Jewish intellectuals made themselves heard who had been born into the new age of European Enlightenment (Aufklärung) and now sought to transform it into Jewish Haskalah, trying to bridge the economic, social, cultural and intellectual barriers which stood between an emerging bourgeois society and the old medieval Jewish world. Exactly at a point where both the issue of Jewish emancipation was raised for wide-spread discussion all over Europe, and new ideals and forms of both ritual and education (Bildung, Haskalah) were adopted in the Jewish realm, the Maskilim, as they called themselves, not only developed a gigantic scheme of re-education for the Jewish masses, but also created a new kind of Jewish public sphere (Öffentlichkeit) which, besides printed sermons, novels or theological popularizations, was constituted by numerous, though often short-lived Jewish journals and newspapers.
The emergence of such a public sphere, completely foreign to Jewish traditional society, appears to be one of the most striking features of modern European- and, more precisely, German-Jewish history and was closely related to the formation of a Jewish middle class (Bürgertum) in the "age of emancipation" (1780-1870). Once the old structures had been breached or proved to be obsolete, also new forms of communication had to be found which, on the one hand, should provide for a common Jewish forum for the exchange of ideas and information within a politically fragmentated Germany; on the other hand, by adopting German instead of Jiddish as an additional language to Hebrew, disseminate and enforce specifically Jewish issues among both Jewish and non-Jewish circles.
2 Germany as the centre of European-Jewish press in the 18th and 19th centuries
The cradle of European-Jewish press, as it seems, stood in Amsterdam1 which, from the middle of the 17th century onwards, had developed into the centre of Hebrew typography in Europe. There, in November 1674, the first know issue of a Jewish paper called Gazeta de Amsterdam appeared, but except that it was printed in Ladino, containing political and business news for the Sephardi community of Amsterdam, there was nothing particularly Jewish about it.2 For the next 100 years to come, only three more short-lived periodicals in Jiddish - or rather Juden-Deutsch (German in Hebrew characters) - and a collection of rabbinical responsa in Hebrew were published.
Around the middle of the 18th century, Germany finally established itself as the new centre of European-Jewish press - and should remain it for more than 1 ½ centuries. Some exponents of the early Berlin Haskalah, first of all Moses MENDELSSOHN (1729-86) himself, laid the foundations for a vibrant and fruitful development of German-Jewish press which set the example for all other European states. According to The Jewish Encyclopedia, up to 1900, almost 900 Jewish periodicals had been edited worldwide, about 1/5 of them in German language. The Hebrew weekly ha-Me'assef (1783-1812), which reprinted parts of MENDELSSOHN'S earlier Kohelet Musar (around 1750/58), marked the beginning of modern Jewish press. As the literary voice of the Maskilim, it adopted the model of the so-called "moral weeklies" (Moralische Wochenschriften) which had become the most popular form of peridicals during the era of Enlightenment a few decades earlier. This both delayed and accelerated adoption and transformation of general trends in the Jewish realm seemed to be quite typical of at least the first three or four generations of modern "German Jewry" who, up to the middle of the 19th century, tried to catch up with their non-Jewish surroundings.Thus, the new ideal of a Jewish "bourgeoisie of education" (Bildungsbürgertum), including the public articulation of specifically Jewish interests through specifically Jewish press organs, was modelled according to the general example.
Hebrew undoubtedly was the language of the Maskilim. For them, the use of Hebrew not only represented a renewed means of communication but also the fulfillment of a biblical heritage and promise. The bi-lingual tradition of Ashkenasi Jewry should be maintained - but elevated. Purity of style was one of the most prominent aims which should not only apply to Hebrew, but also to Jiddish towards a more purified form of German. Thus, on the one hand, ha-Me'assef stood at the beginning of the revival of Hebrew as a modern language which then was transferred to Eastern Europe through periodicals like the Bikurey ha-Itim (Vienna, 1820-31) or ha-Maggid (Lyck, 1856-92), the latter inaugurating the era of modern Hebrew press. On the other hand, at the beginning of the 19th century, the Hebrew readership in Germany had vanishing almost completely: Except some German supplements of Ha-Me'assef, Sulamith (1806-48) was both the first Jewish paper entirely written in German language, and first Jewish paper to appear in one of the European languages, turning to Jewish and non-Jewish readers alike. The development of this "national" Jewish press was closely connected with the course of emancipation in the respective countries: in Western and Central Europe (including Austria-Hungary) the first periodicals appeared already before the Revolutions of 1848/49, in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe only thereafter.
The development of the Jiddish press, however, was largely obstructed by the efforts of the Maskilim both in Western and Eastern Europe. Only in the 1860ies, Jiddish papers like the weekly Koyl Mevasser (Odessa, 1862-71) - and later even daylies - were published on a larger scale to serve the needs of the Jewish masses in Eastern Europe. The same also applied to the Ladino press of Sephardi Jewry in Vienna, Paris, the Balkan States and especially Constantinople where - after the Gazeta de Amsterdam - El Journal Israelith (1860-71) marked the beginning a short revival till the turn of the century.
3 The development of Jewish press in Germany till 1850
The history of the both Jewish and general press in Germany in the 19th century appears to fall into two major periods by the Revolution of 1848/49 when precensorship was abolished in Prussia and other German states and unprecedented technical innovations like the railway, the telegraph system, the high-speed press or the re-organization of editorial offices came into effect thereafter. Unlike general press, however, Jewish periodicals in Germany underwent a deep crisis in the middle of the 19th century: Out of 14 papers in 1846/47 only 3 survived the year 1850. One of the reasons may be the political unrest (including the fiercest pogroms against Jews of the whole century) which, in contrast to a florishing daily political press (which there never was on the Jewish side), also strongly affected German book-trade. Only in 1851, the first new, but rather long-lived Jewish periodicals were founded.
Up to 1850, probably 42 Jewish periodicals appeared on the territory of the German states (which, in 1871, were to form the German Kaiserreich).3 Both their typological and ideological development clearly mirrors the ups and downs of German politics, especially the course of Jewish emancipation, and may be divided into 3 distinct periods:
- 1780/83 - 1812: the age of Jewish Haskalah and the beginnings of the emancipation debate in Germany till the Prussian Judenedikt of 1812;
- 1812/15 - 1830: the period of restauration and reaction after the Congress of Vienna in 1815 which also saw the establishment of a Jewish German-language and scientific press;
- 1830/32 - 1848/51: the politicization of Jewish periodicals after the French Revolution of July 1830 and, especially from 1837-40 onwards, the expansion and internal differentiation of the Jewish press sector both ideologically, scientifically and religiously.
As pointed out before, the first modern Jewish periodical, ha-Me'assef (1783-1812), later followed by Sulamith (1806-48), exactly appeared at a time when the issue of Jewish emancipation was raised by Christian Wilhelm VON DOHM (1751-1820) and other Germans for lengthy discussions. The first or rather second generation of Maskilim, among them the editors Isaac Abraham EUCHEL (1756-1804) and David FRAENKEL (1779-1865), sought to correspond to the new principle of "civic improvement" (bürgerliche Verbesserung) and, themselves educated educators, to put it into practice. For these efforts, Jewish periodicals probably served as one of the most important media, eventually leading to a rather uncompromising reform of traditional Jewish education and ritual in the first two decades of the 19th century.
The defeat of NAPOLEON and the restauration of the old powers after the Congress of Vienna in 1815 meant a serious setback for the course of Jewish emancipation in Germany, which was also reflected by Jewish press: Only in 1817, Sulamith was joined by a second paper, Jedidja (1817-33), for a longer period of time, followed by 4 rather short-lived periodicals in 1821-24, one of them being the first scholarly Jewish paper, the Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums (1822-23), which laid the foundations for the early "Science of Judaism".
The probably most decisive event for the development of European-Jewish press in the 19th century was the Damascus Blood Libel of 1840. As a result, a sense of solidarity was evoced among the Jewish communities of Europe they had never experienced before. Thus, the Damascus Affair gave birth to modern Jewish press especially in Western Europe, such as to the long-lived papers Les Archives Israélites de France (1840-1935) in Paris or The Jewish Chronicle (1841ff.) in London.
In Germany, however, the "politicization" of Jewish periodicals had been accomplished almost a decade earlier when, in the wake of an increasingly liberal atmosphere after the French Revolution of July 1830, Gabriel RIESSER (1806-63) edited the first political paper which he called Der Jude (1832-33/35): Deliberately, he stuck to the old and, by then, pejorative term which he intended to turn into a name of honour. Just a few years later, the most important and long-lived of all German-Jewish periodicals, the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums (1837-1922), was founded by Ludwig PHILIPPSON (1811-89). By adopting several new elements like leading articles from the realm of general press, his weekly soon became the prototype of all Jewish newspapers both in Germany and abroad.
Thus, from the years 1837-40 onwards, German-Jewish press gradually developed into a growing and differentiated sector of its own: Among the scientific periodicals the Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums was e.g. followed by the Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie (1835-48) of Abraham GEIGER (1810-74) and the Israelitische Annalen (1839-41) of Isaak Marcus JOST (1793-1860). Just before the middle of the century, the debate on religious reform considerably intensified, too. Especially the Rabbinical Reform Conferences of 1844-46 directly led to the emergence of a both orthodox and conservative Jewish press in Germany: The former was first represented by Der treue Zions-Wächter (1845-54) which, in 1854, was to be succeeded by Jeschurun (1854-70) of Samson Raphael HIRSCH (1808-88), the leader of Jewish "Neo-Orthodoxy". The so-called "positive-historical Judaism" was propagated by Zacharias FRANKEL (1801-75), who first edited his Zeitschrift für die religiösen Interessen des Judenthums (1844-46), later to be followed by the famous Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums (1851-1941). In 1846/47, on the eve of the Revolution of 1848/49, there finally was a distinct increase in liberally oriented, but only short-lived papers concerned with the issue of Jewish legal and social emancipation which, however, quickly disappeared in the turmoil of their time. Unlike the crisis of German-Jewish press, the European Revolutions of 1848/49, in the long run, gave new impetus not only to the liberal movement and to Jewish emancipation, but also to the development of European-Jewish press in both west and east.
4 The significance of German-Jewish press for the Jewish community in Germany
The specific role of German-Jewish press in the development of the Jewish community in Germany in the late 18th and 19th centuries can hardly be estimated today. Besides the periodicals themselves, only a small amount of relevant materials has been preserved in various state, city and Jewish community archives all over the world, and - if at all available - circulation figures do not seem to have exceeded a total of about 500 copies each. On the other hand, German-Jewish periodicals, today, rank among the most important primary sources for German-Jewish history, offering rich and invaluable information both for inner-Jewish live and external affairs. Numerous (and quite often polemic) remarks prove that there has been a vivid exchange of ideas within the various Jewish papers in Germany and abroad. All of them usually served as an additional source of information for Jewish interests, especially designed for further dissemination through teachers, rabbis or scholars, or for the instruction (Belehrung), edification (Erbauung) and entertainment of Jewish families during the week-ends.
Thus, as it seems, German-Jewish press in the late 18th and 19th centuries served as the institutional centre of the Jewish community in Germany and as one of the major constituents of a Jewish public sphere of its own. Just like the different Jewish community organisations which, in Germany, came into being only in 1869 and thereafter, German-Jewish press took over certain functions, thus enabling the Jewish community to bridge the different political and legal borders which prevented the foundation of a central German-Jewish organisational body up to the foundation of the German Kaiserreich in 1871. Basically, three different functions of German-Jewish periodicals may be distinguished:
- a medium of information and eduction for the inner-Jewish sector, i.e.German-Jewish periodicals provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and - according to the intentions of most Maskilim - a medium for the education of the "Jewish masses", especially in the fields of religious reform and the so-called "civic improvement", thus ensuring both the flow of information between the scattered Jewish communities all over Europe (and even the world), and, up to the middle of the 19th century, serving as the most important medium of a Jewish reform movement;
- the institutional centre of the German-Jewish community for communication and the (re-) organization on a national scale, thus substituting a central community organization in a politically divided country up to 1871, especially as the formation of common opinions and statements or concerted efforts to organize relief actions for troubled Jewish communities all over Europe were concerned;
- an organ for the articulation and enforcement of specific Jewish interests towards a non-Jewish public by transcending the inner-Jewish public sphere in order to present Jewish interests to non-Jews alike and - if possible - to put them into practice through the help of a benevolent public opinion, i.e. in the 1830ies at the latest, German-Jewish press, especially the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums of PHILIPPSON, became the most important medium of an independent Jewish movement for legal and social emancipation.
5 The research on German-Jewish press of the 18th and 19th centuries
Nowadays, the significance of German-Jewish press for the Jewish community in Germany has been acknowledged by almost every historian in the field. Nevertheless, intensive research on the history of German-Jewish press itself seems to have started only in the last decade. Previous general standard works on the history of German press, such as the Geschichte der deutschen Presse of LINDEMANN and KOSZYK, do not even list Jewish periodicals, the data available are often incomplete or misleading, and even today, there is an urgent need for a reliable handbook or lexicon in the field.
Jewish historians such as GEIGER or SINGER, however, have dealt with the issue already back in the 19th century till, in 1905, the Jewish Encyclopedia laid the basis for all further research in the field. In 1928, a special section of the international press exhibition "Pressa" in Cologne, for the first time, presented an overall view of the Jewish press. Thereafter, however, serious Jewish press research in Germany came to an end under Nazi rule and was carried on abroad only by single scholars such as Jacob TOURY. In 1967 and 1969, the International Newspaper Museum of Aachen organized two press exhibitions in Tel-Aviv and Amsterdam. In 1980, the World Federation of Jewish Journalists edited a memorial volume on The Jewish Press That Was with special emphasis on Eastern Europe, whereas in 1989, the Institute for Research of the Jewish Press at Tel-Aviv University dedicated a special issue of its scholarly organ, Qesher, to Jewish Journals and Journalists in Germany. Since then, there seems to be renewed interest in German-Jewish press research itself, either on single periodicals or their development during certain periods of German-Jewish history. Especially in Germany, a growing number of dissertations and similar research projects are carried out at various institutions.
One major obstacle, however, still remains: an only restricted availability of the numerous, but rather small and short-lived Jewish papers of which only a few original copies have been collected and preserved in public libraries in Germany and abroad. In order to compensate for the heavy losses during the Nazi period, already in previous years, several reprints and microfilm programs have been initiated by Olms, IDC and others in co-operation with the Leo Baeck Institute New York or the Jewish National and University Library Jerusalem, both probably holding the most comprehensive collections of German-Jewish papers world-wide. Moreover, some new attempts are being made just recently, e.g. at the RWTH Aachen or the Moses Mendelssohn Center for European-Jewish Studies in Potsdam, to digitalize Jewish periodicals on a larger scale and to present them to a wider public on CD-ROM together with a detailled index or a reliable search engine.
- The first periodicals we know of today appeared in 1609: two weekly papers called Avisa. Relation oder Zeitung in Wolfenbüttel and Relation in Strasburg. The first known daily paper was issued in Leipzig in 1650, called Einkommende Zeitungen.
- Only volume 1675 and one issue of 1690 have been preserved. The Gazeta de Amsterdam probably ceased in 1699.
- I.e. excluding Austria-Hungary and Prague as well as yearbooks, almanacs and calendars. See list of periodicals at the end of this article.
Appendix: Jewish periodicals in Germany till 1850
|1780/83 - 1812: Jewish periodicals of the Haskalah
||Kohelet Musar. Berlin (M. MENDELSSOHN / T. BACK). (Heb.) [?]
||Der grosi Schoyplatz. Neuwied (B. CRONEBURG). (Jewish-German) [?]
||1771 - 72
||Dihernfurter pripilegirte Zeytung. Dyhernfurt. (Jewish-German) [?]
||ha-Me'assef. Königsberg/Berlin (Heb./Ger.)
||1806 - 48
||Sulamith. Leipzig / Dessau / Kassel (D. FRAENKEL).
|1812/15 - 1830: The beginnings of German-language and scientific press
||Zeitschrift für die Reifere Jugend (Keren Tuschiyah). Fürth (H. SCHWABUCHER). (Jid.)
||1817 - 33
||Jedidja. Berlin / Leipzig (J. HEINEMANN).
||1818 - 20
||[Taschenbücher zur Belehrung der Jugend. Berlin (J. HEINEMANN).]
||1818 - 20
||[Almanach für die israelitische Jugend. Berlin (J. HEINEMANN).]
||Der Bibel'sche Orient. München (I. BERNAYS ?).
||1822 - 23
||Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums. Berlin (L. ZUNZ).
||Geist der Pharisaeischen Lehre. Mainz (M. CREIZENACH).
||ha-Zefirah. Leipzig (M. LETTERIS). (Heb.)
|1830/32 - 1848/51: Politicization, expansion and internal differentiation
||Der Jude. Altona (G. RIESSER).
||1833 - 35
||Zion. Berlin (A.J. COHEN).
||Gemeinnützige Blätter für Wissenschaft, Schule und Leben. Dessau (D. FRAENKEL). [?]
||1835 - 36
||Das Fuellhorn. Dinkelsbühl (S.W. ROSENFELD).
||1835 - 48
||Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie. Frankfurt a. M. u.a. (A. GEIGER).
||1836 - 37
||[La Régeneration, die Wiedergeburt. Strasburg (S. BLOCH). (French/Ger.)]
||Israelitisches Samstagsblatt. Hechingen (S. MAYER).
||Unparteiische Universal-Kirchenzeitung... Frankfurt a. M. (M. HESS / I.M. JOST).
||1837 - 39?
||Die Synagoge. Würzburg / München (L. ADLER).
||Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Leipzig / Berlin (L. PHILIPPSON).
||1839 - 41
||Israelitische Annalen. Frankfurt a. M. (I.M. JOST).
||Allgemeines Archiv des Judenthums (Jedidja, [2.] neue Folge). Berlin (J. HEINEMANN).
||1839 - 48
||Der Israelit des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Meiningen u.a. (M. HESS/S. HOLDHEIM).
||[Israelitischer Musenalmanach. Dinkelsbühl (S. MAYER).]
||1840 - 43
||Zion. Frankfurt a. M. (M. CREIZENACH / I.M. JOST). (Heb.)
||1840 - 51
||Der Orient. Leipzig (J. FÜRST).
||Israelitische Schul-Zeitung. Simmern-Koblenz (M. BLOCH).
||Jeschurun. Leipzig (C. MAIER / S. FRANKENBERG).
||1841 - 65?
||[Volkskalender für Israeliten / Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und Unterhaltenden für Israeliten. Brieg u.a. (K. KLEIN / J.K. BUCHNER).]
||[Museum zur Belehrung und Unterhaltung für Israeliten. Brieg? (K. KLEIN).]
||1842 - 46
||Sabbath-Blatt. Leipzig (H. SOMMERFELD / A. JELLINEK / J.L. SAALSCHÜTZ / J. FÜRST).
||1843 - 44
||Zur Judenfrage in Deutschland. Berlin (W. FREUND).
||ha-Techijah - Die Auferstehung. Frankfurt a. M. (H. STERN). (Heb.)
||Ben Chananja. Leipzig (L. LÖW).
||1844 - 45
||Religiöse Wochenschrift für gottglaeubige Gemüther... Halberstadt (L. PHILIPPSON).
||1844 - 46
||Zeitschrift für die religiösen Interessen des Judenthums. Berlin / Leipzig (Z. FRANKEL).
||Zijon he-Chadasch - Das Neue Zion. Leipzig (J. GOLDENTHAL). (heb.)
||Der kabbalistisch-bibelsche Occident. Hamburg (S.L. SCHWABACHER).
||1845 - 46
||[Bericht der Genossenschaft für Reform im Judenthum. Berlin.]
||1845 - 47
||Blätter für Israels Gegenwart und Zukunft. Berlin (R. BELLSON). [Christian?]
||1845 - 55
||Der treue Zions-Wächter. Altona (J. ETTLINGER / S.J. ENOCH).
||Die Reform des Judenthums. Mannheim (A.J. ADLER / H. WAGNER).
||Israelitischer Volksfreund für das Großherzogthum Posen. Trzemesno (H. ROSENTHAL).
||[Volkskalender für Israeliten. Kreuzburg (M. TOPLOWITZ).]
||1846 - 47
||Der Jude in Deutschlands Gegenwart. Hamburg (E. COHN).
||1846 - 47?
||Sinai. Bayreuth (J. AUB).
||Reform-Zeitung. Berlin (A. REBENSTEIN).
||Der Volksvertreter des Judenthums. Berlin (G. LIEPMANNSSOHN).
||1847 - 48
||Phönix. Hamburg (E. COHN).
||Politische und Sociale Monatsschrift. Leipzig (L. PHILIPPSON).
The background of modern (German-)Jewish history
Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte in der Neuzeit, Vol. 1-4, München: C.H. Beck, 1996-97.
Howard M. SACHAR, The Course of Modern Jewish History. New Revised Edition, New York: Vintage Books, 1990.
David SORKIN, The Transformation of German Jewry 1780-1840, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1999 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
History of German general press
Geschichte der deutschen Presse, Vol. 1-4, Berlin: Colloquium Verlag, 1966-86.
Vol. 1 (1969): Margot LINDEMANN, Deutsche Presse bis 1815.
Vol. 2 (1966): Kurt KOSZYK, Deutsche Presse im 19. Jahrhundert.
History of (German-)Jewish press
Margaret T. EDELHEIM-MUEHSAM, The Jewish Press in Germany, in: Leo Baeck Institute Year Book I (1956), pp. 163-76.
Abraham GEIGER, Nachrichten. Jüdische Zeitschriften (part 1-3), in: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie IV (1839), pp. 286-92 and 459-71; V (1844), pp. 372-90.
[The] Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. Isidore SINGER, Vol. 1-12, New York / London: Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-06.
Vol. IX (1905): Periodicals, by Richard GOTTHEIL and William POPPER, pp. 602-40.
[The] Jewish Press That Was. Accounts. Evaluations and Memories of Jewish Papers in pre-Holocaust Europe, ed. Arie Bar (English edition), Tel Aviv: World Federation of Jewish Journalists / Jerusalem: Jerusalem Post Press, 1980.
Joodse Pers in de Nederlanden en in Duitsland / Jüdische Presse in den Niederlanden und in Deutschland, 1674-1940, Den Haag: Mouton & Co., 1969.
Jüdische Presse im 19. Jahrhundert. Aus dem Internationalen Zeitungsmuseum der Stadt Aachen, Aachen: Wilhelm Metz, 21967.
Jüdische Zeitungen und Journalisten in Deutschland / Itonim ve-Itonaim Yehudiim be-Germaniyah [Qesher, special issue, May 1989], Tel Aviv: Institute for Research of the Jewish Press, Tel Aviv University, 1989.
Menorah. Jüdisches Familienblatt für Wissenschaft/Kunst und Literatur VI / Nr.6-7 (June/July 1928) [Festnummer zur "Jüdischen Sonderschau der Pressa 1928, Köln" JSOP e.V.], Wien / Frankfurt a. M.: Habrith-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1928, pp. 321-416.
Isidor SINGER, Presse und Judenthum, Wien: D. Löwy, 11882 (21882).
Jacob TOURY, Die Anfänge des jüdischen Zeitungswesens in Deutschland, in: Bulletin des Leo Baeck Instituts X / Nr.38-39 (1967), pp. 93-123.
Jacob TOURY, Die Jüdische Presse im Österreichischen Kaiserreich. Ein Beitrag zur Problematik der Akkulturation 1802-1918, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1983.
History of the Jewish press in Hebrew language
Menucha GILBOA, Leksikon ha-Itonut ha-Ivrit be-Me'ot ha-Shmoneh-esreh ve-ha-Tsha-esreh [Hebrew Periodicals in the 18th and 19th Centuries], Jerusalem: Bialik Institute / Tel Aviv University, 1992.
Getzel KRESSEL, Guide to the Hebrew Press, Zug: Inter Documentation Company, 1979.
Josef LIN, Die hebräische Presse. Werdegang und Entwicklungstendenzen, Berlin: Jalkut, 1928.