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63rd IFLA General Conference - Conference Programme and Proceedings - August 31- September 5, 1997

The attitude of Icelandic principals towards school libraries: A survey

by Hafdís Dögg Hafsteinsdóttir,
BA in Library and Information Science,
University of Iceland Reykjavík, Iceland


PAPER

Background to the survey

What initiated the survey was reading up on a project on the chosen subject of the premise and role of elementary school libraries and history of Icelandic elementary school libraries. Researching and working on that project made it clear that one of the major premise of an ideal, active school library, fully integrated in the school curriculum, is a positive attitude of the school principal, as he is the last link in the chain of key elements in the facilitation of that school library, the other key elements being mandatory law and official policies and guidelines.

Researching for that project it was surprising to find that in Iceland there is nothing that ensures the existence of elementary school library other than a small mandatory note in the The Elementary School Law that merely states that a school library should be in all elementary schools, but no specific requirements are made towards how it should be equipped, manned or administered, and no official guidelines or policies for elementary school libraries have ever been published on that matter. This leaves the matters of elementary school libraries solely up to the individual principal, as the different boards of education do not seem to have any specific policies on elementary school libraries either.

At this point it was obvious that a survey that would gather information on principals' views towards elementary school libraries was in order. And so the author set off on that journey.

The literature backbone of the survey

The literature that provided the major backbone of the survey consisted of four articles, each describing a project having to do in one way or another with the attitude of principals towards elementary school libraries. These articles were the basis for the questions in the Icelandic survey and the major grounds for comparison.

A quantitative questionnaire survey that Barbara Dekker did in 1987 in Ontario in Canada aimed to prove the hypothesis that the importance of the school library was based on the attitude of the principal towards the library. The findings of this survey were that only half of the principals asked remembered having had lessons on the role of school libraries in their teachers or principal studies. Most principals thought that a teachers degree and education in school librarianship was the appropriate qualification that a school librarian should have and preferred that to a university degree in librarianship. A large majority of the principals asked thought that their knowledge of the role of the school library was sufficient. Decker concluded that her survey showed a large inconsistency between the service that the elementary school libraries in Ontario provide and the service that the libraries are supposed to provide according to the current school library policy. The blame lies with the Ontario Department of Education and the local school authorities as well as the principals and school librarians of each school as the authorities do not provide the principals with the means to carry out the policy in full.(Dekker 1989:32-37)

A 1992 qualitative interview survey by Dianne Oberg in Alberta Canada found that in the opinion of seven school librarians the principals' support should be in the form of their understanding of the importance of the school library in the curriculum; showing the school library personal interest and to use their authority to provide the school library with funding for collection and staffing and by making co-operative planning possible in teachers schedule. When asked how principals supported them the school librarians answered it was mostly by trusting their knowledge and by bracing their ideas for change and additions in the school library, but also by scheduling regular meetings where the issues of the school library were discussed.

In 1993 Patricia Wilson and Martha Blake did a quantitative survey in USA which found that the majority of school librarians thought that school principals did not have enough education in the field of school libraries and suggested they acquired more education in that field. Over half of the school principals agreed with the school librarians on that matter. As the survey showed that the co-operation between school librarians and school principals was only existent to a limited degree and not as extensive as the school library policy suggested, Wilson and Blake concluded that educational organisations that graduated school librarians needed to put more value on the education of principals in school library matters. (Wilson, Blake and Lyders 1993:18-24)

Among the initial findings of a 1995 qualitative survey that Lyn Hay and James Henri did in Sidney in Australia were that the communication between school librarians and school principals was mostly verbal although many school librarians thought written communication important. Principals were also prepared to acknowledge the school librarians as a senior member of the staff and to rely on his/her professional judgement if the school librarian proved worthy of that opinion. Principals see school librarians as information technology leaders in their schools. Principals encourage school librarians to undertake professional development. Principals support the school library by funding information technology and library collection. Principals place high value on the qualifications of the school librarian and select the most qualified for the job. Principals expect school librarians to be well capable in information technology and to have a vision of the future development of information services. (Hay and Henri 1995:1-11)

The aim of the survey

The aim of the survey was to get to know the attitudes of some Icelandic principals towards elementary school libraries, and to find out if a positive attitude resulted in an active and well equipped school library. The survey was not meant to prove or disprove any hypothesis or intended to be a mean to generalise the attitudes of Icelandic principals on the whole. It's only purpose was to get an insight into the views of a handful of principals towards elementary school libraries.

In the process of constructing questions for the questionnaire the findings of the above mentioned surveys were used as a basis along with some home made questions.

The selection process and response

The survey was not intended to be, or should not be considered statistically dependable although the data collection process for the survey was done in a quantitative way, by sending out questionnaire and the dissemination of the data done in the statistical program SPSS, the survey can not be considered dependable on the grounds of a small sample and non random selection. The sample was 32 elementary schools out of the total of 206 Icelandic elementary schools. The schools were selected by location, same number from the rural and urban areas of the country and by the gender of the principal, as these factors were used for comparison in the final process.

First an introduction letter was sent out to principals of those schools selected, and they asked to notify if they and/or their school librarians could not take part in the survey for some reason. One school in the rural east asked to be excused. Then the questionnaires were sent to principals and school librarians in 16 schools in the metropolitan area in and around Reykjavík and to 15 schools scattered evenly across the remainder of the country. The questionnaires directed at principals and school librarians were not completely identical, more information was being asked from the principals. The questionnaires consisted of closed questions where participants were asked to give background information, mark given options, one or more, to prioritise, or to mark a scale form 1-5, 5 being the highest score. (1=none, 2=little, 3=some, 4=quite a lot, 5=a lot) Completed questionnaires came from 17 pairs of principals and school librarians; 5 school librarians sent in their completed questionnaires although their principals did not participate in the survey, and questionnaires came from 3 principals although their schools did not have any school library. This sample of 20 principals and 22 school librarians was somewhat meagre, so 6 schools in the metropolitan area and 8 in the rural areas were contacted and asked to participate trying to balance the division between the areas and the principal gender. Three pairs of principals and school librarians answered along with four principals whose schools did not have school libraries.

All in all 27 principals and 25 school librarians answered and completed the questionnaire. The majority of the principals that answered were from the rural areas of Iceland or 15 out of the 27; but school librarians in the metropolitan area made up 64% of those that answered; 16 of the 25, the explanation being that schools without a school library are all found outside the metropolitan area. Answers from 3 schools, principals and school librarians, arrived to late in the work process to be concluded in the report.

Schools and school libraries in the survey

Number of pupils

Principals were asked about the number of pupils in their schools. Most schools or 37% have 301-500 pupils, 22% have 501-700 pupils 15% 101-300 pupils, 15% less than 100 pupils and 7% have more than 700 pupils. This does not concur with the Yearly report of elementary school libraries which gives information on 54% of all schools in Iceland. There numbers of pupils are as follows: 31% have less than 100 pupils, 25% have 101-300 pupils, 27% have 301-500 pupils, 12% have 501-700 pupils and 5% have more than 700 pupils. The survey does therefore not concur with the Yearly report of elementary school libraries in the matter of distribution of schools by number of pupils; the survey covers more populous schools and fewer less populous schools than the report cites. But as stated earlier it was not the intention with the survey to generalise the situation in schools in Iceland, only to get a picture of the situation in a number of schools.

The facilities of the school library

When asked about the housing of the school library in their schools 23 principals answered that it was in its own facility, i.e. a separate room, but in 3 schools the library was had no special facility but was scattered between rooms. One principal did not answer the question. It turned out that it was in schools with the fewest pupils that the library had no special facility, i.e. in schools with fewer than 300 pupils. Most school libraries in the survey are of the size of 81-100 m, or 7 of them, 6 libraries are 41-60 m, and 4 out of 23 are more than 100 m , 4 do not answer the question. Majority of the largest school libraries, more than 100 m, are in the rural areas of the country or 4 out of 5, but the majority of the smallest school libraries, under 60 m is also outside the metropolitan area, or 7 out of 9. Most school libraries have a volume number of 4000-8000, or 11 libraries, 41%, but 4 school libraries or 15% have a collection of under 2000 volumes. School libraries with a collection of 6000-12000 volumes are divided equally between the rural areas and the metropolitan area, 5 in each area. More libraries in the rural area have a collection of under 4000 volumes than in the metropolitan area or 7 to 5, and all school libraries in the survey with a collection of under 2000 volumes are in the rural areas.

The staffing of the school libraries

School principals were asked about the staffing of their school libraries. 14 school libraries had 1-2 positions, 10 libraries had less than one position, one library had no position and 2 principals did not answer the question. 9 out of 12 school libraries in the metropolitan area have 1-2 positions but only 5 out of 13 school libraries in the rural areas, and school libraries with less than one position are fewer in the metropolitan area than in the rural areas, or 3 to 7. Of the two schools in the survey with more than 700 pupils one has less than one position in the school library and 4 schools with 301-500 pupils have less than one position in the school library. Number of positions in the school library and the size of the library's collection seem to be fairly well balanced. School libraries with a collection larger than 6000 volumes have 1 to 2 positions in 8 out of 10 schools in the survey, and school libraries with a collection of fewer than 6000 volumes have less than one position in 7 instances out of 12. The number of employees in the school libraries are: one employee in 14 libraries, two employees in 9 libraries and 3 employees in 2 libraries. One school library had no employee. Principals were asked if a regular teaching was scheduled in the school library. 6 principals answered that all classes received library teaching, in 9 schools most classes hand library teaching and in 7 schools some classes. No regular library teaching was in four schools and one principal did not answer the question.

Participants in the survey

Participants in the survey, principals and school librarians, were asked some questions about their background.

Gender and age

Of the principals that participated in the survey 16 were male and 11 female, and of the school librarians 3 were male and 22 female. Four principals and 3 school librarians were more than 60 years old. Two school librarians but no principal were between 21 and 30. Principals were mostly aged 40 to 60, but school librarians spanned the age of 30 to 60 evenly.

Education

Barely half of the principals has a teachers degree from the Icelandic Teachers University, or 13 of the 27, but all except two have a teachers diploma. Eight principals have a teachers degree and some other education, often speciality teaching. Two principals have some education in library and information science, one of them being male and the other female. Four principals have a university degree from the University of Iceland, and one principal has a college degree. Barely half of the school librarians has a teachers degree from the Icelandic Teachers University and a diploma in school librarianship, or 12 of the 25, one has a college degree, 5 have a teachers degree from the Icelandic Teachers University, two are librarians with a degree from the University of Iceland, of which one has a teachers diploma, two are currently studying librarian and information science, two have a university degree and a diploma in school librarianship and one has a university degree and a teachers diploma him being one of the three males, the other two have teachers degree and a diploma in school librarianship. The majority of the 13 principals that have a teachers degree are located in the rural areas or 8 out of 13. Two out of three principals that have a university degree from the University of Iceland and a teachers diploma are located in the rural areas but both the principals that have an education in library and information science are in the metropolitan area. Both librarians are located in the metropolitan area along with the other three school librarians that have a university degree.

Five out of 12 school librarians that have a teachers degree and a diploma in school librarianship are located in the rural areas and those five make up more than half of the 9 school librarians in the rural areas that answered the survey. Nineteen of 26 principals said that they had completed classes, studies, or courses in school administration although there is no compulsory education for principals in Iceland, a simple teachers degree suffices. Six out of the 15 principals in the rural areas have no education in school administration, 40%, and none of the 15 has studied school administration for more than one year. 10 out of 11 principals in the metropolitan area have some education in school administration. The two principals that have studied school administration for more than one year are both male, four out of 11 female principals had less than a year education in these matters or 36%, while 33% of the male principals had studied school administration for less than a year. 20% of the male principals had no education in school administration but 36% of the female had no such education.

Keeping up to date

Both principals and school librarians were asked how they kept up to date in their field, and were given a few options to mark. 26 principals take regular courses, 22 visit conferences, 18 are active in professional associations, 17 engage in discussion groups, but only one marked participation in discussion groups on the Internet. 17 school librarians take courses for teachers and 9 take courses for school librarians; 7 school librarians go to conferences for teachers and 5 go to conferences for school librarians; nine school librarians are active in professional associations for teachers and 5 in professional associations for school librarians; 10 participate in discussion groups for teachers and 8 in discussion groups for school librarians; no school librarian participates in discussion groups for teachers on the Internet but 3 participate in discussion groups for school librarians on the Internet.

Classes on school libraries in principal's education

When asked if there had been classes on school libraries in their education, either in their teachers studies or principals' studies, 9 principals answered that there had been classes or discussions on school libraries in their studies, but there had been no discussion on school libraries in the studies of 18 principals. Older principals seemed to have had less classes or discussions on school libraries than younger principals, only 2 out of 11 principals older than 50 years old had had any school library discussions or classes, but 7 out of 16 principals younger than 50 had had instructions on school libraries, and the two principals younger than 40 had both had instructions on school libraries. Seven out of the 9 principals answering this question said that discussions on school libraries had been sparse. 31% of the male principals had had discussions on school libraries in their education while 36% of the female principals had had such discussions.

Evaluation of principals' knowledge of school libraries

Both principals and school librarians were asked to evaluate principals' knowledge of the administration of school libraries, their roles and their possibilities in the curriculum. The majority of principals and school librarians consider principals to have "some" or "quite a lot" of knowledge of the administration of school libraries, or 67% of principals and 80% of school librarians.74% of principals say that they have "some" or "quite a lot" of knowledge on the role of the school library, but 80% of school librarians say that principals have "quite a lot" or "a lot" of knowledge on the role of the school library. 78% of principals consider themselves to have "some" or "quite a lot" of knowledge on the possibilities of the school library in the curriculum but 76% of school librarians say principals' knowledge on that matter to be "quite a lot" to "a lot". Principals were asked if they thought they needed further education in the matters of school libraries, and 22 out of 27 said they would take an opportunity to educate themselves in matters of school libraries were it given, although they expressed their knowledge in school library matters to be some or quite a lot.

The attitude towards school libraries

School librarians were asked about their impression of the attitude of their principal towards their school library. Four school librarians said their principal had some interest in the school library. Twelve school librarians considered their principal to have quite a lot of interest in their school library, and 8 said their principal had a lot of interest in the school library. Principals in the rural area of the country seemed to have no less interest in the school library then their colleagues in the metropolitan area, according to the school librarians. Female principals seemed to have a slightly less interest towards school libraries according to school librarians when the attitude of male and female principals towards school libraries were compared, because 3 out of 4 principals that received the lowest grade were women, and only 3 out of 8 principals that received the top grade were women, although female principals registered with more education in library and information science.

Does the principal observe the daily work in the school library?

The majority of principals and school librarians agreed that principals did somewhat observe the daily work in the school library (on the scale of 1-5 "somewhat" being 3). This outcome could be misleading as some participants thought they were evaluating a negative observation of the principal. Notes on the questionnaires indicated that school librarians were encouraged to be independent in their work, and it would be negative to give the principal a higher score considering that encouragement.

Emphasis on information skills and information technology

Principals and school librarians were asked to give principals a grade on the scale from 1-5 (5 being highest) on principals' emphasis on teaching information skills. The majority of principals considered themselves to put some emphasis on teaching information skills (grade 3) or 11 out of 27, school librarians however said principals put quite a lot of emphasis on teaching information skills (grade 4) or 10 out of 25. 55.5% of principals thought they put little or some emphasis on pupils training and use of information technology, where as 56% of school librarians consider their principals put quite a lot or a lot of emphasis on pupils training and use of information technology.

Emphasis on the integration of information skills and curriculum Principals and school librarians did not agree on how much emphasis principals put on the integration of information skills and curriculum. Most principals, 29%, say they put little emphasis on these matters, while most school librarians, 32%, consider their principals to put some emphasis on the integration. Two of the four principals that state they put no emphasis on the integration, say they would like to put more value on that matter in the future.

Influence of information skills on academic achievement Principals were asked to evaluate how much influence they thought information skills had on academic achievement. Twelve principals thought information skills had a lot of influence on academic achievement, 13 principals thought it had quite a lot of influence and 2 thought it had some influence on academic achievement. When emphasis on teaching information skills were compared with the evaluation of influence of information skills on academic achievement it became clear that most principals' emphasis on teaching information skills were one point lower than their evaluation on the influence of information skills on academic achievement, i.e. if the emphasis on teaching information skills was graded 3 (some emphasis), the evaluation of the influence of information skills on academic achievement was graded 4 (quite a lot of influence). Only 4 principals out of 26 or 15% graded the emphasis on information skills the same as the evaluation on the influence of information skills on academic achievement.

Key features of an information literate school

When principals and school librarians were asked to prioritise options they were given to be key features of an information literate school, the principals put school librarian with a good knowledge on information technology on top of the list, then they put a good school library collection. Third and fourth item on the list were teachers and a principal with an understanding on information literacy. Next on the list were advanced technology throughout the school and in the school library. The two last options were regularly scheduled teaching in information skills and integration of information skills and curriculum. School librarians were not given the options of teachers or principal with an understanding on information literacy. School librarians prioritised the options as follows:

In the first place school librarian with a good knowledge on information technology; in second place good school library collection; in the third place regularly scheduled teaching in information skills; fourth and fifth place advanced technology throughout the school and in the school library; and last place integration of information skills and curriculum.

Barriers to the development of an information literate school

In the same way principals and school librarians were asked to prioritise given options on barriers to the development of an information literate school. The vast majority of both principals and school librarians considered lack of funds and technology to be the two major barriers of an information literate school. Next on the list came lack of knowledge of the possibilities of the school library in the curriculum. On the principals' list the shortage of qualified teachers and school librarians came next, but on the school librarians list came lack of interest of teachers and school librarians to integrate teaching and school library.

The principal and the school librarian

The employment of the school librarian

Principals were given options to mark how the school librarian had been employed. Ten of the 25 principals that answered the question mark the option that they had advertised for a teacher with a diploma in school librarianship; two advertised for a qualified librarian; one advertised for a librarian with a teachers diploma and one simply advertised a position in a school library. Six principals marked an option stating they looked for a teacher with an education in librarianship within their own school, and 5 stated they looked for a teacher within their school with an interest in the job. This results are probably not very accurate as some principals note that as advertisements did not result in any recruiting they looked within their school for an interested teacher.

The importance of the school librarian and qualifications

On the scale of 1-5 principals were asked to grade how important they see the school librarian, and school librarians were in the same way asked to grade how important they thought their principal considered them. The majority of principals and school librarians considered the importance of school librarians to be "quite" to "very" important, but a larger percentage of principals than of school librarians considers the school librarian to be "very" important. The seven most prioritised qualifications principals expect school librarians to fulfil are in the following order: That school librarians show initiative in the build-up of the collection; that school librarians show initiative in the use of the school library in the curriculum; that school librarians suggest change and reform in school library matters; that school librarians is leading in the matters of information technology; that school librarians keep up to date on library science and education; that school librarians make an effort in teaching information skills and that school librarians show initiative in keeping the technology in the school library up to date. School librarians see the prioritised qualifications that principals expect them to fulfil in a slightly different order: That they suggest change and reform in school library matters; that they show initiative in the build-up of the school library collection; that they show initiative in the use of the school library in the curriculum; that they maintain the school library in the state that it is currently in; that they make an effort in teaching information skills; that they show initiative in keeping the technology in the school library up to date; that they keep up to date on library science and education, and in the last place school librarians put the qualification that their principal expects them to be the schools leading party in the matters of information technology, whereas the principals put that qualification in the fourth place.

The importance of the school library and school librarian in the training of pupils in information literacy and information skills

A vast majority of both principals and school librarians consider the importance of the school library and school librarian in the training of pupils in information literacy and information skills to be "quite" to "very" (scores 3 and 4).

The communication between principals and school librarians

Most principals marked the option that communication between them and the school librarians were verbal, or 19 out of 22. One principal noted extra that regular meetings were held with the school librarian, one that he had regular conversations with his school librarian and one that he conversed daily with his school librarian (these were not given as options). One principal noted that written communication took place along with the verbal.

Principals' support of school librarians

Principals and school librarians were asked to state in what way the principals supported their school librarians (an open question). Fifteen principals answered the question and most said they tried to provide their school librarians with what they needed for the school library, in terms of funds and material. Many expressed that they tried to promote a positive atmosphere; compliment on jobs well done and general encouragement to do a good job. Some principals note that they encourage school librarians to decide and act independently in the matters of the library, and to undertake further education in librarianship. One principal writes that he assisted in the planning of teaching information skills and in computerising the library. Two principals note that they consider the school library to be the centre of the curriculum. The answers of the school librarians are also very positive. Many state that their principals fully trust them to oversee the school library as a whole; teaching information skills, administration, planning, management and maintenance. Some describe how well their principal react to their suggestions to change and new ideas. One school librarian says his principal encouraged him to educate himself in library and information science and stood by him throughout that time by making it possible for him to study while keeping a full position as a school librarian. Other school librarians state that their principals fulfil their tasks of providing funds for the school library.

Summary and comparison to other surveys

Summing up the main results it can be said that the facilities of school libraries in the rural areas of the country are in most cases worse than in the metropolitan area. Most of the smaller school libraries are in the rural areas whether their size in square meters is observed or the volume count of their collections. Positions in school libraries in the rural areas are not as many as in the metropolitan area. More than half of the rurally located school librarians in the survey do however have an education in school librarianship although school librarians with a university degree are in the metropolitan area.

Rural principals in the survey do also seem to be less educated than their colleagues in the metropolitan area, whether their general education is considered or their education in school administration. Female principals also seem less likely to have an education in school administration than their male colleagues according to the survey, although they do by no means have less general education than the male principals. The female principals have a better education in school library matters according to the survey, although their male colleagues are given better grades in their attitude towards school libraries by the school librarians.

Two thirds of the principals in the survey state that they had no classes or courses on school libraries in their education, either in their studies for teachers degree or principal courses. That result is consistent with Barbara Dekkers results on the education of Canadian principals in school librarianship. (Dekker 1989:34) Younger principals do however seem more likely to have received classes or courses on school library matters than their older colleagues, and that suggests that education in these matters is picking up. Principals that have received education in library matters also state that that education had been sparse and concur on that matter with their American colleagues who consider their knowledge in school librarianship limited. (Wilson, Blake and Lyders 1993:19) Principals in the survey state their knowledge of the administration, role and possibilities of the school library in the curriculum to be fairly good, in spite of their limited education in these matters, thus agreeing with their Canadian colleagues who also consider themselves fairly knowledgeable on the role of the school library. (Dekker 1989:35) The Icelandic principals expressed that they would welcome the opportunity to study more on school librarianship, and so in that respect not concur with principals in Ontario who are comfortable with their knowledge of the role of the school library. (Dekker 1989:35)

The evaluation of the school librarians of their principals' knowledge on school library matters; the administration, role and possibilities of the school library in the curriculum, was inconsistent with the evaluation of American school librarians. The Icelandic school librarians generally gave their principals a fairly good to good score, while American principals did not receive a good evaluation from their school librarians. (Wilson, Blake and Lyres 1993:19) School librarians in the survey stated that their principals placed more emphasis on the teaching of information skills, integration of information skills and curriculum and of pupils training and use of information technology than the principals said they did. But principals' emphasis on the teaching of information skills was generally one point lower than principals' evaluation of influence of information skills on academic achievement, when these two factors were compared. In other words; principals emphasis on teaching information skills was not coherent with their evaluation of the influence of information skills on academic achievement.

Principals and school librarians agreed that a school librarian with a good knowledge in information technology and a good school library collection were the key factors of an information literate school. Principals and school librarians also agreed that the main barriers to the development of an information literate school were lack of funds and technology and lack of knowledge on the possibilities of the school library in the curriculum.

The majority of principals in the survey place value on employing school librarians with a teachers degree and a diploma in school librarianship, although these qualifications can not always be met. The Icelandic principals agree in this matter with Canadian principals who also stress the value of employing school librarians with a teachers degree and a diploma in school librarianship. (Dekker 1989:35)

Principals and school librarians agreed that principals' evaluation of the importance of the school librarian in the curriculum was great to very great. It is the opinion of school librarians that principals do not consider them as important as the principals say they do.

The communication between principals and school librarians are mostly informal verbal communication as is also the case among Australian principals and school librarians. (Hay and Henri 1995:9)

Qualifications that principals expect school librarians to fulfil are that they show initiative in the build-up of the school library collection and in using the school library in the curriculum. This is not consistent with the qualifications that Australian principals expect their school librarians to fulfil which are that they be the schools leading party in information technology (Hay and Henri 1995:9), that being a qualification Icelandic principals put in the third place. Icelandic school librarians do not agree with their principals on the order of qualifications that their principals expect them to fulfil, but perceive them to be suggestions on changes and alterations and initiative in the build-up of the school library collection and its use in the curriculum.

Principals' support of school librarians seem to be comparable to the support of their colleagues elsewhere in the world, i.e. providing funds, encouragement of independent decisions and actions and general support and motivation to undertake further education in the field of school librarianship. (Oberg 1995:224-225, Hay and Henri 1995:9)

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