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61st IFLA General Conference - Conference Proceedings - August 20-25, 1995

Current Trends in User Education in the United States

Barbara Wittkopf, Louisiana State University Libraries



I would like to begin my thoughts on the current trends of user education in the States by quoting a paragraph on the "creation" of bibliographic instruction from a book entitled, Bibliographic Instruction: the Second Generation.

"In the beginning there was Chaos. And the students moved aimlessly upon the face of the library. And the reference librarians said, 'Let there be instruction.' And there was instruction. The reference librarians brought forth the workbook, and the fifty-minute lecture; and the students no longer moved aimlessly about, but searched purposefully through the card catalog and the journal indexes and the serials catalog. And the reference librarians looked upon what they had wrought and they found it good."(1)

We smile at this reading first because user instruction is so much more than this today, but second because we can still relate to doing this type of library instruction.

To identify the current trends—or themes—of user education in the United States I looked at the programs, activities, and literature on Bibliographic Instruction—BI—at the national level. In my information gathering I went back five years to 1990-91. Additionally I have gained insight to current and ongoing trends by reading messages daily on the BI Listserv which began in April, 1990, and by attending national conferences.

Information Literacy

In the past five years one of the most profound effects on BI has been the American Library Association's Final Report on Information Literacy issued in January, 1989. The report defined an information literate person as one who is able to recognize when information is needed and has the ability to locate, evaluate, and use if effectively. Such skills prepare people for experiences they can use and apply throughout their lives. (2) In 1990 the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 1990 to be "International Literacy Year." Because BI librarians are in the information business of teaching users how to identify, locate, and appropriately evaluate information, they quickly adopted this concept of information literacy which is still thriving today.

BI in the American Library Association

Some twenty years ago there was an informal network of librarians interested in BI. In 1977 BI became more formalized with the creation of two major groups within the American Library Association: the Bibliographic Instruction Section—BIS—in the Association of College and Research Libraries Division, and LIRT, the Library Instruction Round Table. This diagram shows where the two major groups are located within the American Library Association (ALA).


(The center portion consists of the elected officers and Council members and the staff that manage ALA.)

Divisions Round Tables
ALA Committees
Am. Assn. of School Librarians, AASL LIRT and User Instruction
Am. Library Trustee Assn., ALTA other for Information
Assn. for Library Collections & round tables Literacy (UIILC) Technical Services, ALCTS and other ALA
Assn. for Library Service to Children, ALSC committees
Assn. of College and Research Libraries, ACRL
Bibliographic Instruction Section (BIS)
Assn. of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies, ASCLA
Library Administration and Management Assn., LAMA
Library and Information Technology Assn., LITA
Public Library Assn., PLA
Reference and Adult Services Division, RASD
Young Adult Library Services Assn., YALSA

ALA has 11 Divisions which include divisions for specific populations such as academic and research libraries, school librarians, public libraries, children, adults, and specialized and cooperative library agencies. The Divisions have further subdivisions. For example, the Bibliographic Instruction Section (BIS) is a subdivision of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Division.

ALA also has its own national committees, such as the User Instruction for Information Literacy Committee (UIILC). There are 18 round tables in ALA. The round table concerned with BI is the Library Instruction Round Table or LIRT.

As you might expect, BIS is primarily concerned with library instruction in academic libraries while LIRT on the other hand is concerned with library instruction in all types of libraries: school, public, special libraries, and academic. There are also other groups in ALA concerned with BI and literacy, such as the Adult Lifelong Learning Section of the Public Library Association Division.

ALA has 55,400 members. ACRL is ALA's largest Division with 10,400 members and BIS is ACRL's largest activity section with 4,150 members. LIRT has 1,100 members (as of April, 1995).

ALA holds two conferences a year. The winter conference is solely for planning and discussion; the summer meeting includes programs presented by all units of ALA including BIS and LIRT.

1991 ALA Programs

Many programs at conferences are influenced by the conference themes of an ALA President or a Division President. During ALA's 1991 conference in Atlanta, Barbara Ford was President of ACRL and "information literacy" was the theme of her ACRL President's Program, "Empowering People: Information Literacy." (3) BIS and four other sections of ACRL made information literacy the theme of their 1991 programs as well. Information literacy was related to technology, black families, Asians and Africans, higher education, and the environment:
ACRL. Bibliographic Instruction Section:
"Technology as a Barrier to Information Literacy,"
ACRL. Afro-American Studies Librarians Section:
"Information Literacy: Black Families and Literature,"
ACRL. Asian and African Section (now Asian, African and Middle Eastern Section):
"Information Literacy Issues in the African and Asian Context,"
ACRL. Community and Junior College Libraries Section:
"Institutionalizing Information Literacy in Higher Education," and ACRL.
Law and Political Science Section:
"Information Literacy for Environmental Issues."

There were more programs relating to BI at the 1991 ALA Conference than at any other conference year between 1990 and 1995, including programs by units outside the ACRL Division. The Public Library Association, for example, highlighted current nationwide literacy projects:

LITA, PLA, and ALA's Office for Library Research Services:
"Literacy Now. Libraries Take the Challenge: Highlights of Current Projects Nationwide,"
ASCLA and YALSA (Young Adult Services Division:
"The Library as Laboratory,"
"Drugs, Kids, and Literacy," and
LITA's Emerging Technologies Interest Group:
"Multi-magic: The Use of Full Moon Video and Hypermedia for Library Instruction and AV Presentations."

Data received from the 1990 U.S. decennial census also influenced the program topics presented at the 1991 Conference because it reported a more culturally diverse population in the United States. LIRT'S 1991 program was entitled: "Cultural Diversity Strategies for Promoting Information Literacy in a Changing World," combining both information literacy and cultural diversity issues in BI.
BIS held a 1991 pre-conference with the theme: "Cultural Diversity and Higher Education: BI in a Multi-Cultural Environment." "Bibliographic Instruction" in Library Literature. As a way of monitoring the themes in the library literature on "BI" in the United States during the past five years I looked under the entries, "Bibliographic instruction" in the indexes of Library Literature and noted the parallel of the professional literature with the programs at national ALA conferences. (4)

Reflection on 1990

To reflect back for just a minute, the largest number of articles in the 1990 Library Literature index (besides articles on adult and medical users) was "information literacy," including an article each by Barbara Ford and Hannelore Rader. During each of the five years there were also articles indexed from the "Information Literacy" column in the quarterly journal, RQ. (5)

Most of the BI literature is written about academic and school environments. However, in 1990 there was an article from Public Library Quarterly entitled, "BI in the Public Libraries: To Have or Not to Have, That is the Question." The author concluded that "when the evidence is collected, in most cases, out-of school adults will be better served with a formal bibliographic instruction program." (6)

When I became Editor of the BI journal, Research Strategies, in 1990, I decided to write editorials that reflected the pulse of the times. Therefore, one of my quarterly editorials in Research Strategies in 1990 was on information literacy, challenging BI librarians to identify ways of reaching members of society who do not enter the library to also "learn how to learn." (7) Another 1990 editorial was written just prior to the Second White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services (WHCLIS). I suggested that BI librarians consider themselves one of the human resources conference delegates were seeking in focusing national attention on how library and information services can contribute to a literate, productive, and democratic society. (8)

1991 Literature

The Winter, 1991, issue of the journal, Library Trends, focused on "information literacy" and "innovative perspectives for the 1990's." (9) In 1991, however, there were as many articles cited in Library Literature on CD-ROM instruction as on "information literacy." Whereas during the 1980's BI librarians had been concerned with teaching the use of OPACs, the online public access catalogs, now they also needed to teach the use of many CD-ROM products in their 50-minute, course-related, "one shot" lectures.

As if to help BI librarians in their plight, the 1991 Library Literature indexed chapters from the LIRT Library Instruction Handbook on how to plan library instruction programs in school media centers, public libraries, academic libraries, etc. (10) Another book for school librarians was indexed entitled, The School Library Program in the Curriculum . (11) During the past five years there has been a nationwide effort to more closely integrate library use and the curricula in the elementary schools. Most articles on BI for elementary and high school students for all years related to improving research skills.

One of my 1991 editorials focused on the new demands for accountability that were being required by the agencies accrediting United States' colleges and universities. Agencies were asking, "How do you know if students are learning?" (12) Another 1991 editorial encouraged librarians to communicate with one another on the newly established BI-Listserv, and another discussed the necessity of BI librarians participating in NREN, the National Research and Education Network, in preparing for the national information superhighway. (13,14)

1992 Programs and Literature

In 1992 BIS and LIRT celebrated their 15th anniversary with day-long BI programs at the annual summer conference in San Francisco. The ALA User Instruction for Information Literacy Committee hosted a program panel that debated current BI methodologies.

The 1992 edition of Library Literature indexed a book: Information Literacy (published in 1991). (15) In addition to information literacy there were now an almost equal number of entries relating to hypermedia, audio-visuals, instructional design, off-campus students, and handicapped users.

The topic of "handicapped users" was due to significant legislation passed in the United States Congress in 1990. The American Disabilities Act said that all agencies and institutions had to be in compliance in accommodating handicapped users by January, 1992. One of my editorials in Research Strategies in 1992 asked whether BI librarians were in compliance as the term "handicapped" referred to the mentally handicapped as well as the physically handicapped. (16)

Five ALA Divisions presented programs with a BI theme during the 1992 conference relating to whole language programs, literacy, distance learning, and adaptive technologies:

whole language programs and
AASL pre-conference:
"Integrating Information Skills into the Curriculum,"
ASCLA. Young Adults:
"Librarians and the Three L's: Literature, Learning, and Literacy,"
ACRL. Extended Campus Libraries Services Section.:
learning at a distance,
PLA. Adult Lifelong Learning Section.:
"Lifelong Learning Begins with Literacy. Where are You?" and
LITA. Interest Groups.:
"Potential for the Use of Adaptive Instructional Technologies in Libraries."

1993 Programs and Literature

My editorial in the Fall, 1993, issue of Research Strategies reflected the economic slump the libraries and nation were in with the simultaneous need to secure additional funds through grants and gifts to improve their teaching technologies, to equip electronic classrooms, to create information kiosks, and the like. (17) Library staff were being "downsized" and everywhere there were changes: changing priorities, services and service points, staffing patterns and responsibilities. The 1993 BIS program in New Orleans related to change and redefining BI. As the economy and workforce shifted there were more and more returning adult students to the classrooms. The ACRL's Extended Campus Libraries Services Section program was "Working with the Adult Learner in Academic and Public Libraries."

In the 1993 Library Literature there was an approximate tie in the number of entries relating to information literacy and the teaching of CD-ROM products. These were followed by articles on critical thinking and evaluation. There were several articles on handicapped users and a couple of articles on hypermedia and teaching the Internet.

1994 Programs and Literature

It was, therefore, not surprising to note that the 1994 ALA BI programs in Miami Beach the next year revolved largely around the emerging technologies.

BIS held a pre-conference on "Integrating Active Learning into Library Instruction" The BIS conference program was on "Thinking and Teaching the Internet Within the Curriculum."

Three other programs focused on distance learning and education:

"Going the Distance: Reaching and Teaching Remote Learners,"
ACRL. Extended Campus Libraries Services Section:
"Remote Library Users and Electronic Networks," and
ACRL. Professional Education Committee:
"Learning from Afar: the Realities of Distance Education."
There were two BI programs targeted for children. The Association for Library Services to Children's (ASCLS's) pre-conference on "Linking Young People to Information," and a program sponsored by the Children's Television Workshop on "Science Video and Hands-on Learning." 1994 was the last available cumulative index to Library Literature as I was preparing this presentation. Although there were still a couple of articles on information literacy, there were a number of articles relating to off-campus students. One entry referred to a course a School of Library and Information Science faculty had developed for its distance education students. (18)

There were articles relating to the Internet, hypermedia, local area networks (the LAN), CD-ROMs and OPACs, a trend that shows the growing need to incorporate electronic sources in BI programs. The 1994 Library Literature indexed the (1991) LOEX Conference proceedings on "Working with Faculty in the New Electronic Library." An article on BI in special libraries articulated the common notion that the primary objective of the special librarian is to make the user aware of what the library has to offer and when it should be used and the objective of training the client in the mechanics of library use should be "secondary." (19)

A significant book for school libraries was published by ALA in 1994: Power Teaching: a Primary Role of the School Library Media Specialist. (20) The "Library Power" privately funded program is designed so teachers can work collaboratively with the librarian in all elementary curriculum areas to help students acquire lifelong information processing skills. The library is therefore perceived as the hub of learning in the school. The program is committed to having twenty-five cities in the United States participating by 1996. Portions of the monies can be used to buy new books that correlate with the themes taught. Other monies can be used for professional development so the media specialists can attend AASL national conferences, for example.

One of my 1994 editorials in Research Strategies asked what kind of professional development there is for the librarians other than BI or reference librarians who are suddenly being asked to do BI, such as catalogers and collection development librarians as staff are downsized and lines of responsibility are increasingly blurred in the academic libraries. (21) Another editorial reflected on the change of student populations in our colleges and universities, with 83% of them living off campus and asked, "How are we accomodating these commuter students with our programs and availability?" (22)


1995 was the culmination of several years of discussion in the Bibliographic Instruction Section as to how to rename the Section to more accurately describe what it represents. Although names considered included the Educational Strategies Section and the User Education Section, the name that was selected was ACRL's Instruction Section. Members felt it was no longer appropriate to include the word "bibliographic" in the Section's name. However, they felt individual librarians can and should continue to use whatever name or phrase they feel best describes their own activities at their libraries.

1995 Programs

As usual, there were a number of programs at Chicago's conference on library instruction on evaluation, instructional design, the learning process, competencies, distance learning, cultural diversity, and team learning:

ACRL. Instruction Section:
"Measuring Up! Improving Instruction Through Evaluation;"
"Class Act: Producing and Presenting Library Instruction," (instructional design techniques);
"Kids Ways of Seeing and Learning" and other segments on teaching and the learning process;
AASL. Educators of Library Media Specialists Section:
"Competencies for School Library Media Students: Instruction and Curriculum to Develop Their Skills and Understanding of Technology;"
ACRL. Extended Campus Library Services Section:
"Academic and Public Librarians Working Together to Support Extended- Campus Students;"
PLA. Metropolitan Libraries Section, Service to Multicultural Populations:
"Cultural Diversity Programs in Admired Libraries," (based on survey results); and
LAMA. Personnel Administration Section and others:
"Managing Team Learning and Change."
Organizations are always experimenting with new management techniques.

A 1995 editorial in Research Strategies asked whether our libraries are "learning organizations" where organizations value both individual and collective continuous learning at all levels. (23)

What are the ongoing trends?

This past Spring I posted this query to the BI-List asking the 2,263 subscribers from 32 countries (as of April, 1995) what they thought were the current trends. I am interspersing their thoughts with my own. The basic premise is the same: people want and need information. What has changed is what they access, how they access it, how they do or do not evaluate what they access, and where they access this information.
  1. Librarians are initiating and conducting training in searching the Internet. Sometimes these sessions are joint ventures with staff from computer centers. Instruction librarians who know how information is organized introduce browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic and create bookmarks and home pages to more easily capture information in cyberspace. Librarians frequently include sessions on electronic mail to encourage students to use e-mail as a vehicle to communicate with classmates, their academic or library instructor, and listserves in completing assignments.

  2. Library instruction is more valued by administrators than it has been in the more recent past. Adminstrators are acknowledging the need for electronic classrooms where students can have the hands-on experience librarians have long advocated, especially since the arrival of the OPACs. Many of these classrooms are being planned in libraries. Monies are needed to purchase workstations and projection equipment and to re-wire the building with Ethernet connections.

  3. Librarians are aware of the larger world around them and how that impacts on what they are able to do. Although library instruction may be more valued, funding for these electronic classrooms or to comply with the American Disabilities Act is impacted by funding decisions at the federal, state, and local levels. Instruction librarians are writing more grant proposals. Changing demographics dictate that handouts and cassette tours be available in languages other than English and that instruction sessions be conducted nights and weekends to acommodate returning adult, working students. The Instruction for Diverse Populations Committe of ACRL's Instruction Section (IS) if creating a glossary of terms that will be available in several languages.

  4. The varied user populations bring with them a variety of learning styles and librarians need to be prepared to teach. They need to take advantage of programs, such as this summer's LIRT program to understand different techniques such as collaborative learning. LIRT has a Library School Task Force that is addressing the issues of competencies needed by would be instruction librarians. ACRL's Instruction Section's Education for BI Committe has presented programs at national meetings of the Library School Faculty on this topic.

  5. Because there is so much information to cover in a class session, there is an emphasis on concept-based instruction, rather than source or tool based. Rather than explain to a class how to use each title on a book truck, the instructor helps users identify what kind of information they need and what types of sources (not specific titles) help them get that information. It is hoped that users can apply this knowledge to other questions in the future.

  6. As an exception or apparent contradiction to concept-based instruction there are simultaneous instruction sessions being conducted on teaching the use of a particular information tool, one that requires extra explanation in order to be used to its optimum potential. The teaching of LEXIS/NEXIS, a full text database of news, legal, business, and medical information, comes immediately to mind. Along with these sessions is the realization that not all instruction need be done solely through a credit course or a fifty-minute class period; there are alternative time blocks.

  7. Despite the busyness, instruction librarians insist on imparting critical thinking skills. At Louisiana State University we managed to accomplish this in dealing with hundreds of freshman English students this past year. In the Fall we presented search strategies to these first year students through a Word Perfect Presentation program. Students were guided in choosing appropriate databases from the local area network of CD-ROMS to research their topic.
    In the following Spring semester those classes were offered a worksheet where they could find information to support their thesis statement. Every database selected, every search term selected, every article or item selected challenged them to evaluate the choices they were making. Printed directions for searching the electronic sources were provided on the worksheet. The Internet poses even greater challenges in validating the authorship and content of the information presented.

  8. Evaluation is more important than ever. Priorities must be re-examined. There is too much to cover and too few people to do the work. Should we continue meeting with all freshman English classes or is there an alternative approach? What is the priority of instruction? At one university library in the Washington D.C. area the User Education Coordinator evaluates all the librarians on their teaching because all librarians are doing instruction! Her position is also over Reference and Information Desk services. How do we know if students are learning? The ACRL Instruction Section is finalizing a new handbook on evaluation.

  9. Perhaps the biggest challenge is how to balance face to face instruction with users who are at a distance geographically or electronically--the users outside the walls of our libraries and classrooms. The need for distance education is even being addressed by the Directors of the Association of Research Libraries. At the ACRL Conference in Pittsburgh this Spring, a videotape was shown of the Distance Education Program created at the University of Southern Illinois Library, Carbondate, Illinois. The Director of Libraries was in charge of the project which incorporated many other units on campus as you would imagine. It is a case of the library again taking the lead, much as in teaching the Internet.

  10. Finally, going back to the "creation" of BI. There will always be some Chaos, because change is always with us and that is healthy. And all types of librarians, not just reference and BI librarians, are still saying, "Let there be instruction." But on-going training and re-tooling, and the time for participating in the training and re- tooling are necessary in order to bring forth not only the workbooks and fifty- minute lectures, but desk-top publishing help sheets, home pages on the web, and computerized programs that can be shown in the library's electronic classroom or beamed to distant, remote users.
Fortunately, instruction librarians have a long history of collaboration and sharing. They deposit copies of their print, audio visual, and computerized products at a national clearinghouse, LOEX, located on the campus of Eastern Michigan University so others can borrow from this collection. For over twenty years LOEX has also hosted an annual BI Conference. LOEX maintains a list of library schools that teach courses in library instruction and a list of academic institutions that teach a credit course in library instruction. Syllabi are also available at LOEX. (24)

Martin Kesselman
Electronic Services Librarian
Cook-Douglass Science Library
Rutgers University Library of Science and Medicine
P.O. Box 1029, Bevier Road
Piscataway, New Jersey 08855

Tel: 908/445-3850
Fax: 908/445-3208

Email: kesselman@zodiac.rutgers.edu

"All I can do is hang in there and take one day at a time!"

BIS and LIRT offer more than conference programs. The results of the output of their committees are shared in the profession. In addition to having committees in dialogue with library school faculty, planning an evaluation handbook, and addressing instruction for diverse populations referred to above, there are BIS committees concerned with managing BI programs, with teaching methods, with continuing education, and with creating web pages. The Emerging Technologies Committee is working with the national Coalition for Networked Information on user education for the Internet. BI librarians also like to recognize instruction librarians who have made a contribution to the profession. A BIS committee oversees the administration of these annual awards. One award is for the "BI Librarian of the Year." This $1,000 cash award is presented by Mountainside Publishing Company, the publisher of the journal Research Strategies that I edit. A second award is for the library instruction "Publication of the year," and the third is an award for innovation.

LIRT's liaisons publish the activites of all groups involved with library instruction within the American Library Association to keep BI librarians informed. They do this through their newsletter. At ALA conferences LIRT members staff a booth in the exhibits and organize dutch-treat lunches and dinners where anyone interested in library instruction can have a meal with other librarians also interested in instruction. Two of LIRT's committees are concerned with instructional materials and computer applications. Since 1983 Research Strategies has been considered the journal of library instruction. Through the columns and the refereed articles, authors share a blend of conceptual frameworks and practical applications. (25) Daily messages are exchanged on the BI-Listserv, including position announcements, conference announcements, and queries to the list. While there is a current interest on instructional uses of the web there also also recurring questions such as how to teach a credit course. (26) BI librarians in the States have varying degrees of skill and knowledge regarding library instruction. That is why they use e-mail, read the literature, attend conferences, and publish. The same is true for each country. That is why I want to commend this Round Table for initiating an exchange at the international level. I am pleased to be with you today.


1. Mellon, Constance A. Bibliographic Instruction: the Second Generation. Littleton, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1987, p. 3.

2. American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. Information Literacy: Final Report. Washington D.C.: H. W. Wilson, 1989.

3. Information on ALA Conference Programs was taken from the annual printed programs published by the American Library Association, Chicago, Illinois. Tapes of ALA programs can be purchased through ALA headquarters, 50 East Huron Street, Chicago, Illinois 606ll. Librarians unable to attend conferences may also benefit from program summaries that frequently appear in the "BIS Newsletter" or LIRT's publication, "Library Instruction Round Table News." Recently summaries have also appeared on the BI-List. Other divisions of ALA (AASL, PLA, and YALSA) also report in their publications.

4. Library Literature. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1990-1994.

5. The "Information Literacy" Column in RQ is published quarterly by the Reference and Adult Services Division, American Library Association, Chicago, Illinois.

6. Kaehr, Robert E. "Bibliographic Instruction in the Public Library: To Have or Not to Have, That is the Question." Public Library Quarterly 9.4 (1989) 5-12.

7. Wittkopf, Barbara. "BI Librarians and Information Literacy." Research Strategies 8.2 (Spring, 1990) 50-51.

8. Wittkopf, Barbara. "White House Conferences and BI." Research Strategies 8.4 (Fall, 1990) 158-159.

9. Huston, Mary, Issue Editor. "Toward Information Literacy--Innovative Perspectives for the 1990's." Library Trends 39 (Winter, 1991) 187-366.

10. The LIRT Library Instruction Handbook. Littleton, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1990.

11. The School Library Program in the Curriculum Littleton, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1990.

12. Wittkopf, Barbara. "BI Librarians and the Accreditation Process." Research Strategies 9.3 (Summer, 1991) 114-115.

13. Wittkopf, Barbara. "BI Dialogue: Past and E-Mail." Research Strategies 9.2 (Spring, 1991) 58-59.

14. Wittkopf, Barbara. "BI Involvement in the NREN." Research Stragegies 9.1 (Winter, 1991) 2-3.

15. Information Literacy. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Co., 1991.

16. Wittkopf, Barbara. "Making Sure We're 'In Compliance.'" Research Strategies 10.1 (Winter, 1992) 209-210.

17. Wittkopf, Barbara. "Riding the Electronic Information Train." Research Strategies 11.4 (Fall, 1993) 186-187.

18. Harrington, J.E. and Spindle, D.O. "Cooperative Planning for Service and Instruction" [SLIS faculty develop a BI course for University of Oklahoma distance education students]. In Off-campus Library Services Conference (6th: 1993: Kansas City, Missouri) The sixth Off-campus Library Services Conference Proceedings. Warrenburg, Missouri: Central Michigan University Press, 1993, pp. 83-96.

19. Blue, Richard I. "Bibliographic Instruction in Special Libraries." Science & Technology Libraries 14.2 (Winter, 1993) 119-137.

20. Vandergrift, K. E. Power Teaching: a Primary Role of the School Library Media Specialist. Chicago, Illinois: American Library Association, 1994.

21. Wittkopf, Barbara. "Who's Conducting BI Now?" Research Strategies 12.2 (Spring, 1994) 66-67.

22. Wittkopf, Barbara. "Accomodating Commuter Students--the Majority!" Research Strategies 12.1 (Winter, 1994) 2-3.

23. Wittkopf, Barbara. "Is Your Library a Learning Organization?" Research Strategies 13.1 (Winter, 1995) 2-3.

24. LOEX Clearinghouse,

Linda Shirato,
Eastern Michigan University Library,
Ypsilanti, Michigan 48197.


Phone: 313-487-0168
Fax: 313-487-8861.

25. Barbara Wittkopf, Editor, Research Strategies:

the Journal of Library Concepts and Instruction,
P.O. Box 25144,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70894.

Internet: notbjw@lsuvm.sncc.lsu.edu

Phone: 504-388-8264
Fax: 504-388-6992.

For subscriptions: Mountainside Publishing Company,
P.O. Box 8330,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48107.

Internet: 72263.1222@CompuServe.com

Phone: 313-662-3925
Fax: 313-662-4450.
(Quarterly journal)

26. Bibliographic Instruction Listserv.

To subscribe to BI-L

Do not put anything in the subject line.
In the message, type: subscribe bi-l yourfirstname yourlastname and send it.
Send questions to the Moderator, Martin Raish of Binghamton University, New York.

Barbara Wittkopf
April, 1995